Populated points. The town of Klin (142,000 inhabitants in 1983) - the center of chemical, textile and light industry. The towns: Solnechnogorsck (51,500 inhabitants) and Visockovsck (12,000 inhabitants) and also town-like settlements (from 750 to 15,700 habitants) have textile and light industry enterprises. The towns and settlements are mostly rectangularly planned. The main streets are wide (20 - 40 meters), they are
paved with cobblestone or sometimes asphalt; the other streets
are narrower (10 - 20 meters); most of them are not paved. More
built up are the following areas: downtowns and settlement centers,
and also the sections near the railroad stations, where there
are many brick 2 - 4 story houses, along with the wooden ones.
The other towns and settlements are rarely built-up, and there
are not many houses on the streets. The houses, as a rule, are
wooden 1 - 2 story. Usually 10 - 500 inhabitants are counted
in the villages, and the biggest villages have about 2,000 inhabitants.
The villages are rarely built-up forming sections or rows. Houses
are mostly wooden, 1-story; some of public buildings (such as
clubs, hospitals, schools, etc.) are brick, 1 - 2 story. The
streets usually are not paved in the villages unless they are
located by the sides of highways, in which case they are always
paved. All the settlements have many trees and shrubs, and most
of them are provided with electric power and telephone connections.
There is always indoor plumbing in the towns and settlements;
although the country people use water directly out of wells (depth
is 5 - 20 meters), and rivers.
Road network. The main railroad is the Moscow-Klin-Likhoslavl (in the direction of Leningrad). The inclines are up to 15%, and the least radius of curves is 250 meters. The rails are 65 kg/meter, railroad ties are wooden; the safe pressure to the axle is 23 tons. The length of tracks taking the trains on at the stations and letting the trains leave the station, is 400-700 meters. The pulling is by electric locomotive
on the main route, and by the diesel locomotive on the other routes.
Improved shosses (highways) No. M-10 Moscow-Kalinin and No. M-9
Moscow Volocolamsck are the most significant roads for the State;
they are covered with asphalt or cement/concrete based on sand
and gravel (20-65 centimeters thick). The width of the shosses
fit for traffic is 7-15 meters; the width of road lead is 14-16
meters, (but sometimes up to 21 meters). The rest of the highways
are paved with cobblestone or gravel, rarely with asphalt, and
based on sand and gravel or just sand; the width of the road used
for traffic is usually 5-8 meters (sometimes up to 13 meters),
and the width of less significant roadbeds is 7-10 meters. Improved
dirt roads (4-10 meters in their width) are reinforced with sand
and gravel, but only in certain places; locally the roadbeds are
in very bad condition. All dirt roads become wet and very difficult
for vehicles to go through while raining or when snow is melting.
The bridges at the shosses are usually reinforced concrete, with
the carrying capacity 15-100 tons; (but you can meet also wooden
bridges with the carrying capacity of 5-10 tons). All the rest
of the road bridges are wooden with the carrying capacity of 3-15
Relief and soils. The terrain is flat (absolute height 130-280m) wooded, covered with a network of small rivers. On the north of the area, the relief is flat or gentle, wavy, often swampy. There is a range of hills over almost all the south of the region. The elevation of ranges is 20-80 m, the crests of ridges are wide and mostly flat, the slopes are gentle as a rule (up to 8°),
but locally their steepness reaches 10-15 degrees. The river
valleys crossing the hilly part of the area, are mostly narrow
(0.4-1.0 kilometer), with gentle slopes; from time to time there
are found steep or precipitous slopes, indented with the ravines
which have a depth up to 15 meters. As a whole, the main obstacles
for the traffic are formed by forests and rivers and by marshes
as well, and on the north part of the area, especially during
the time of year when roads are impassable. The Volgs River is
a large water border along with Ivankovsky Reservoir (located
in the down stream of the River Shosh). The prevalent soils are
clays and loams (see the diagram); on the hillsides the soils
contain rock debris and boulders. In the north part of the area
the sands and sandy loams, partly swamped, occupy big areas.
On the marshes the soil is peat up to 2 meters thick. The subsoil
waters on the river valleys and lowlands occur 1-5 meters down,
and underlay up to 20 meters in the slopes of hills and ranges.
Hydrography. The Volga River is navigable. There is the Ivankovskaya hydroelectric station dam on it. The Volga is 0.6-2.0 kilometers in width and 5-13 meters in depth, and has slow stream flow (about 0.1 meter/sec.). The bottom is sandy or muddy, and the banks are low lying and gentle. The flood plan has two sides, and is narrow (50-300 meters). The other rivers are not large: 5-30 meters in width, (but the
rivers Shosha and Lama reach locally the width of 50-70 meters);
the depth is 1-2 meters (maximum up to 3 meters), and the stream
speed is 0.2-0.4 meters/second. The bottom of the small rivers
is also sandy-muddy, the banks are chiefly low-lying and gentle;
only the rivers Sestra, Lama and Yauza have primary steep and
precipitous banks up to 3 meters high. The flood plains, as a
rule, are two-sided, 0.1-1-1.5 kilometers in width, and are meadows
that are mostly/sometimes swamped. The Ekaterinsky Canal is not
used for navigation; its width is 10-20 meters (maximum up to
40 meters); its depth is 2-4 meters; the banks are steep, up to
2.5 meters. The Ivankorskoye Water Reservoir is of an area about
75 kilometers2, considering the length is about 2.5
km and the width from 1.5 to 5 km. The dominating depth of the
Water Reservoir is 5-6 meters, the bottom is muddy, the banks
are low-lying, and mostly swamped. Istrinskoye Water Reservoir
is the area of 30 km2; its length 15 km, the width
is 0.3-1.5 km, the depth 3-15 meters; the bottom is sandy-muddy,
the banks are gentle with gulfs. The rivers freeze up in the
end of November, and the ice is broken up in the first half of
April. By March the ice may reach up to 50-70 centimeters. Drifting
of ice lasts 3-10 days. The water reaches its maximum high level
(1.5 -3.5 meters) by mid-April; at that time rivers overflow (which
lasts 8-20 days). Normal water level stays from July until September;
but then brief water risings happen (0.5-1.5 meters up), which
are caused by all the rain floods. The water reservoirs freeze
up 5-10 days earlier than rivers, but the ice is broken up a few
days later; by the end of the winter ice is as thick as 80-150
centimeters. At springtime the water level on the Water Reservoirs
goes up 2-3 meters higher (maximum up to 5 meters). The swamps
are 0.5-2 meters in their depth. Almost all swamps are grassy,
with hummocky surfaces, overgrown with 5-10 meters height of rare
wood or shrubs. The swamps freeze up by the middle of December
(the average depth that is frozen solid is 0.3-0.5 meters, and
it melts in May. In the spring, when snow melts and also in the
fall, while raining, the swamps normally fill up with water and
are especially difficult to traverse.
Vegetation. The dominant mixed woods are birches, aspen, fir-tree. There are found small dense forests of birches and aspens, as well as coniferous trees (fir and pine trees). The trees have 15-22 meter height (in the coniferous woods - up to 25 meters), the thickness of trunks is 0.15-0.25 meters, and the distance between trees is 2-5 meters. The underbrush is bushy, up to 1.5-3 meters in height. The cleared
paths in a forest are 4-6 meters wide; many of them have become
overgrown with shrubs and are not suitable for traffic.
Climatic conditions. Winter (from the middle of November til the end of March) is moderately cold, with mostly cloudy weather. Stable frosts are typical; the air temperature ranges -5 to -1° C, becoming lower periodically in January and February down to -25° or -30°C.
Several times a season there are brief thaws. The snow cover
is formed by the end of November, reaching 10-60 centimeters by
the end of winter. Snowstorms normally average 3-6 times per
month. The soils become frozen to a depth of 0.6-1 meter by the
end of winter. The spring (the end of March through the end of
May) is cool, with unsteady weather. For the spring, it is common
to have brief periods of cold weather, when the temperature goes
down nightly (even in May) below 0°C.
Precipitation normally falls as rain (10-13 rainy days a month).
However, in April there might be snowfall as well. The snow
cover melts by the middle of April. Summer (the end of May through
the end of August), is warm in temperature; about half of all
summer days are almost cloudless and clear. The air temperature
during the day is 16-20°C
(in July it may be up to 28-30°
sometimes); at night -10 to -15°C.
During the summer, precipitation is high (as average 13-15 rainy
days monthly); brief rainstorms are typical, sometimes with thunderstorms;
also lengthy drizzle showers are common. Fall (the end of August
through the middle of November), is usually fairly warm up to
the end of September, with clear and partly cloudy weather dominating.
In October the weather becomes cool, gloomy; in November, there
is a sudden cold snap. Precipitation is mostly rain; beginning
from the middle of October, rains take turns with snowfalls, but
the snow usually melts. Four to five days each month usually
have fog. Winds during the whole year are generally westerly,
south-westerly and southern; their dominating speed is 2-5 meters
the Russian Topographic Map index.